Post 140 ⇒ by Gautam Shah.
Projects or their near independent systems, when nearly ready, begin to function or need to be operated early. Systems, for example, such as the load-bearing entities become operative as soon as installed or the supports are removed. Similarly systems like stairs and elevators or water supply etc. are made operative for use by construction personnel. Some systems need to be run-tested for certification, safety and other guarantees and warrantees to be effective.
|Towering inferno, a movie of 1974 showed how important are the Operations Manual and Specifications for fighting fires|
A system that is operative also becomes due for regular maintenance, servicing, repair, safety and security observance, and comes under the scope risk-management (such as insurance, fire, etc.). Operations’ Specifications relate to terms and conditions of operating and maintaining various systems of the project. For small, simple and projects of routine nature there may not be any acute need to create a set of such documents. Complex projects, however, require professional operators who may need not be the original contractor or vendors. These third party operators need a formal assignment of their work and responsibilities. The assignments delineating these are the operations manuals. Operations manuals are not just handed to assigned or contracted operators, but placed in an accessible location for emergency reference.
|Escalator maintenance Operation > Wikipedia image by Dailongumuneka|
Projects of routine and simple nature are distinctly delivered - handed over to the client or user, according to a defined process and schedule. The client or user, thereafter on their own, or through other agencies, manage and operate the system.
In case of complex projects, however, consist of several subsystems which begin to be operative as soon as these are installed. Contractors and vendors use such subsystems during the execution of the project (such as stairs, drainage & water supply system etc.), and sometimes manage them till the project is delivered. In cases like, turnkey projects, some of the subsystems must be operated for trial and verification.
|Nose section of Boeing 747 tested with pressure tanks > Wikipedia image by Oliver Cleynen|
Operations specification for traditional material specifications+ processes of construction or assembly are different from projects “delivered” through Performance Specifications. Projects conceived through Performance Specifications invariably have many built in provisions for care of the main and subsystems during their emergent phase. For routine projects, in many organizations, the job of operations and maintenance is handled through departmental facilities or out sourced to specialized agencies. In both cases, yet a strategy is required for dealing with probable conditions and also for less-predictable situations (disasters, crisis). Designers of the system may provide such a strategy, or specialist agencies are required to prepare the operational specifications.
Forms of Operations Specifications
Operations specifications become key instructions during crisis. The agency that evolves the operational specifications, such as Owner, Designer, or Operator of the systems, each may adopt a varied strategy, often lacking coordination to deal with the situation. Professionals are now available, who can independently assess a building system, and prepare a set of operations specifications.
|During emergency there is little time for understanding a layout > Wikipedia image by Cpl Trent A. Randolph|
Operations specifications are often more graphical then written to make its access non technical, and free of language barriers. Many specifications are in the form of signage, instructions or warning signals. These specifications may not occur as a single comprehensive document but distributed across the estate. Repairs and maintenance work, need to be scheduled with other plans of actions. Operations specifications also include methods of observance, supervision and feedback systems.
Conditions for Creating and Providing the Operations Specifications
1 System Designer, System Provider (contractor, fabricator, vendor), and the System Operator, each of the roles should be clearly defined.
2 A System Provider must distinctly (formally) handover (deliver) the System (whole or self-sufficient parts of it) to the Client or appointed System Operators, as provided in the contract.
3 A System Designer and System Provider, together evolve the Operations Specifications. Only one of them is made responsible for Formal Transfer of the Operations Specifications' Documents to the operative agency.
4 System Designer (or the client) must see those necessary guarantees as available from Vendors and Sub contractors, and as provided by the main System Contractor, are transmitted to the Client. Alternatively a third party agency is appointed to create them afresh, and also affect such a transmission of guarantees.