Monday, February 23, 2015


Post 118 -by Gautam Shah

Floor spread for exercise

Floor finish systems classified by the method of laying or fixing are FOUR basic types.

  1.  simply laid on
  2.  mechanically keyed
  3.  adhesive bonded
  4.  cast in situ

These flooring systems remain fixed due to the gravity. The materials are broad-based and often their sheer packing (tight conglomerations of several pieces) provides the stability. Such floorings do not work properly on inclined gradients and in vibratory conditions. Thin or low mass materials get blown off by winds, or get upset due to the moving traffic on it. These floorings are always demountable or removable, re-installable, so preferred for streets to facilitate alteration of service lines. These flooring systems are often secondary systems laid over a hard floor. Some gravity stayed floors are sparingly fixed or keyed by mechanical fixers (e.g. carpets by cleats, zippers, Velcro, etc.). In some instances backing materials like rubberized coating also improves staying by increased friction.

Large pieces of floor stayed by gravity

Cobble stone Floor

Examples: cobbles, brick lays, gravels, sand spreads, carpets, rugs, floor spreads, Daris, Chattais, woven mats, foot’s dusters, wooden boards, synthetic flooring mats, plastic and rubber tiles and rolls, lawn blocks.


In this case the floor finish is incapable of staying in place due to thin body, low weight, absence of gravity pull (such as inclined, vertical or upside down surfaces), presence of other disturbing or vibratory forces, and small extent of spread. Such floors’ finishes are mechanically keyed to the substrate or the structure. Mechanical fastening is achieved by joining systems like nut-bolt, nails, screws, rivets, seam formation, stitching, etc. and also through: friction, suction, surface-tension, magnetic pull, electro-static attraction, etc.

Examples: bus metal floors, ship decks, stage wood floors, cladding, panelling, stair carpets, industrial and performance stage catwalks, etc.


In this system the Floor finish is stayed by affixing in Three distinct ways:

1 several small units of floor finish are affixed edge to edge to create a larger unit, so that it can due to sheer extent stay-put in a place,

2 the flooring material or a layered composition of it, are affixed to a base or substrate.

3 The floor finish is affixed to the substrate or structure, but a part of the fixing material is allowed to float up at the edge junction to form a joint.

Ceramic tiles fixing with cementing compound

Examples of adhesive bonded floors: Natural stones (Marble, Granite, Slate, Sand stone), Cast material (cement blocks, mosaic tiles, IPS, Ironite) synthetic tiles (PVC, linoleum, Glass fiber), Ceramic tiles (bricks, terracotta, baked clay, glazed, porcelain, highly vitrified) and films, foils.


Cast in situ or site systems are laid on the site as a coating. The coatings are thin films, viscous mass or spread of substantial mass. These flooring systems provide a joint-less and uniform quality surface. The major advantage is that there are no visual or application joints, except formed due to fast setting or drying of applied material. The non existence of Structural joints creates one homogeneous surface. Such systems are usually designed to develop a bond with the substrate as the surface is formed by processes such as curing, evaporative drying, cooling, oxidation, calcification, chemical bonding, polymerization, heat, radiation and moisture induced changes. The bonding with the substrate reinforces it.

Concrete cast floor

Site cast flooring

Examples: concrete floors, Cement cast floors, cow dung, Surkhi and lime combinations, synthetic or culture marble systems, fiber glass and other resin+ fiber matrix spraying composites, Organo plastics, tar-bituminous materials, Paints (Enamels, Cyclized rubbers, Lacquers, Epoxies, Polyurethane, etc.).

Tuesday, February 10, 2015



Post 117   by Gautam Shah ➔

Buildings, are more often designed to be inhabited by unspecified users. Many buildings in urban areas see increasing change of ownership. With every change in ownership the building is altered in various measures. The changes are extensive in older buildings surviving in upgraded or rejuvenated neighborhoods.

Style Buildings

Buildings conceived for style considerations are designed irrespective of their environmental settings. Such building’s have innumerable and excessive capacity systems to meet environmental anomalies. The systems are either irrelevant, or highly potent for many of the users.

Air Handling unit

New owners of a building (or its section) have several choices to procure systems that are permanent, replaceable as a whole or partially up-gradable. The technological up-gradation of the building as a system occurs through replacement by an efficient system. There could be elimination of several sub systems by adoption of a comprehensive system. Integration of several systems by spatial rearrangement, rescheduling, segregated or comprehensive control. New owners, if aware would want greater use of passive systems instead of active systems, as it is long term economic relief and meets the environmental concerns. Reliance on sensing mechanisms, control elements, decision elements, connecting elements, distancing elements, converters, etc. leads to lesser chances of failure, quicker detection of problems, and faster replacement of failed system. New occupants have their own perception of safety and security, depending on their family profile and lifestyle. Similarly internal arrangements or space planning requirements must match the needs of the family, and this is an area of worry for the new occupant and also associated with every major change in the body of the family.

Left or Right orientation for Kitchen is one of th major causes of change > Flickr Image by

Changes in buildings are Intentional such as: functional, technological upgrading, styling. Changes are Circumstantial such as: due to ageing, wear and tear of use, overuse, under-use, non use, and misuse. Environmental changes are adoptive ones, where the new user customizes the building by self-help, but changing only the familiar and easily removable subsystems, etc. For altering partially integrated or coordinated subsystems, one needs the services of crafts-persons or specialists. 

Security Devices



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