Friday, December 18, 2009


There are many ways a Design is created. A design emerges from some of the obvious conditions such as:
  • Is it a nascent effort (first ever) or routine application ?
  • Which are the technologies involved ?
  • What is the desired nature of output ?
  • What are the human and other resources available ?
  • Can the design be substantially achieved through personal effort or will require input from others as well ?
  • What is the scale of detail and how is it to be communicated to the executors of design ?
  • Which are the presentation tools and communication methods available ?

Yet one the most important factor that affects the Quality of Design is the Technic of Design or the Design Process.

Some of the important Traditional Design approaches are detailed here: These traditional design approaches are not exclusive in themselves or comparable.

1      Holistic approach
2      Component approach
3      Redesign or Re-engineering
4      Concurrent engineering or Simultaneous design.

Other New Design processes are discussed briefly in the later section of this note.

A      Systems Thinking
B      Conservation of Resources
C      Bio-Mimicry

1 Holistic Approach

Design effort that conceives a complete and self-contained system to begin with is called a Holistic Approach (Whole to the Part). Holistic approach entails germination of an intuition into a complete system. Such creations are very personal, akin to a work of art, often not functional, Holistic creations are one time achievement and often not reproducible. Holistic approach is useful in areas where sufficient information is unavailable or there is a distinct disinclination to search for the detail.

Holistic approach is inadvertently followed when inspiration rather than logic causes a design. A holistic conception and its execution, if distanced in time, some recall is required forcing documentation of the design. With documentation the holistic creation may not remain as wholesome.

  • The term holism was introduced by the South African statesman Jan Smuts in his 1926 book, Holism and Evolution. Smuts defined holism as the tendency in nature to form wholes that are greater than the sum of the parts through creative evolution.
  • The whole is more than the sum of its parts -Aristotle. Holism (from holos, a Greek word meaning all, entire, total) is the idea that all the properties of a given system (biological, chemical, social, economic, mental, linguistic, etc.) cannot be determined or explained by the sum of its component parts alone. Instead, the system as a whole determines in an important way how the parts behave. Reductionism is sometimes seen as the opposite of holism. In science reductionism is seen as a complex system that can be explained by reduction to its fundamental parts. Chemistry is reducible to physics, and biology is reducible to chemistry and physics, similarly psychology and sociology are reducible to biology, etc. Some other consider holism and reductionism to be complementary viewpoints to offer a proper account of a given system.

2 Component Approach:

A complex entity is perceived, as if composed of several subsystems each of which is already substantially real and functional. One is required to solve the inter relationship of subsystems, and while doing so, upgrade the original subsystem or possibly select a new subsystem. Component approach (parts to the whole) provides systems that are reliable, but usually traditional. Where situations demand a radically different or a novel solution, Parts to the Whole design approach is often inadequate. The component approach requires one to have complete over view of the system, and be able to recognize the value of the component in the whole. This is rather simplified by recognizing the time and space extent of the subsystems. The components dwelling or manifesting within such domains may not have any affectations beyond their domain boundaries, so can be dealt easily.

3 Redesign or Re-engineering:

Most products, however claimed to be original, are only improvised version of some existing thing or a Redesign. This is a well-accepted design approach for products' development. It has perhaps, a little less relevance in design processes of unique or first ever systems, such as Civil structures and Architectural entities.

  • Japan perfected the process and achieved distinctive product design solutions in early 1960s. Sony music system Walkman has been evolved through such efforts. At that point of time taped music system were very bulky or heavy weight. To enjoy the hi-fi sound quality outdoors, one had to have large sized twin speakers, heavy batteries for power supply, and spool type tapes. A Walkman helped redesigning of these subsystems and a completely innovative product was launched.

Manufacturers need to design new products and launch them before a competitor can do. Redesign or Re-engineering is used for product development for Automobiles, `white goods', office equipments, etc. Markets are continuously surveyed to find out the features that make certain products to be leaders in the market. An attempt is made to improvise and absorb such features.

As one is operating with a successful subsystem, the chances of its failure are less. Redesign generates a product in its new Avatar. Redesign addresses to deficiencies of aging technologies, fast changing tastes and varying operative conditions of products. It gives very specific clues which new features are accepted and which are the emergent technologies. It also allows faster incorporation of new technologies as new subsystems being offered by inventors and innovators are continuously sought and included. New products are launched with minimum changes to existing tools and plant. Workers only need to upgrade their skills, and new employees or new training schedules are not required. The improvised product has slight familiarity with the existing range, and as a result the comfort of acceptance is high.

Redesign practitioners operate with notions that:
  • A whole system is divisible into subsystems, each of which can be improvised.
  • These subsystems can be improved in-house, but technologically better solutions are being developed by others, so identify them and collaborate to resource such emergent solutions.
  • It is more efficient to redesign or re-engineer a known system, then go into basic research to discover a new entity.
  • A product of redesign process has fewer chances of failure, because one is improvising upon a working system.
  • Transfer or absorption of new Technologies is very fast.
Redesign processes require a lot of field surveys for identification of a market leader product. The field data is often so enormous and with minor or rare variants that may require statistical processing. Very often feedback from consumers is subjective in nature. There is a distinct danger for the design leader/ team to get entangled in the data collection and interpretation work at the cost of essential design creativity.

Organizations, that deal in very competitive markets prefer redesign processes as it allows them to continuously update their product with minimum of risks.

4 Concurrent Engineering or Simultaneous Designing:

Nominally large projects are divided into several task modules, each of which were till recently handled sequentially. Experts or team working in their own domain used to handle the problem by freezing it (status quo). The solution was then transmitted to the project leader. Every time a major change was proposed all other modules had to be reset, forcing rethink and rework. To avoid such problems, project designing is now handled Concurrently or Simultaneously.

To overcome the delays of sequential working, several teams are formed to handle tasks concurrently (to work in parallel mode). For these, the organization must have necessary resources, alternatively the work is outsourced to external experts. The concept of concurrent engineering or simultaneous designing requires fast communication channels for live or virtual linkage. Design changes are immediately transmitted both ways, to the project leader as well as teams handling specific tasks. Very often the design process is in a public domain like Internet world wide web through which anyone can contribute ideas, products, etc. CAD files, spreadsheets and databases are structured to be multi access document systems.

  • For example, a significant design change in a structural design of a bridge span will affect design of many other sub systems. It could mean change of loads on the columns, foundation structures, scaffolding requirements etc. Each of these would have new design parameters, but with electronic drafting tools and instant communication means, all design changes can be apparent to all the concerned agencies, immediately.
The Concurrent Engineering or Simultaneous Designing works with following notions:
  • A system can be perceived as consisting of several dependent or independent subsystems. If the nature of the dependency can be defined, then the subsystems can be dealt by the Same Team rescheduling it to a date before or later (sequentially) or by Different Teams simultaneously (in parallel).
  • Association of different teams primarily allows superior technological input. Different teams working in Parallel Mode offer faster a throughput. Teams located in different time zones though do not fully operate in parallel mode, offer advantage of local technologies and 24x7 daylight working hours.
  • Virtual parallel processing of projects occur in many different ways. Database, spreadsheet, CAD drawings and other documents can be altered by many different users, with each version or layer identified separately and a possibility of assimilating (merging) it selectively.
  • Current days high speed virtual communication (broad band internet, video conferencing) allow changes to be proposed, confirmed and accommodated in real time mode.
  • The design evolution becomes participatory. It does not remain restricted to hired or appointed experts, but becomes a public domain affair with inventors, innovators and other free-lancers offering novel ideas. Such offers are usually on a try it-like it-buy it, basis, i.e., without any consultancy charges or purchase-payment obligations.
Concurrent Engineering or Simultaneous Designing works best when resource constraints are very acute. It helps in completion of projects in the shortest possible time and maximizes the profit or advantage. It matches tasks to available human resources, machines capacities. Organization dabbling in off the track jobs cannot suddenly recruit new employees, upgrade the competence of staff or resort to over-time payments for the extra work, use concurrent engineering. Concurrent Engineering or Simultaneous designing is one of the best methods to infuse new technologies, adjust to erratic finance flows and cope up with external factors like climate, political conditions, etc. These methods allow use of human and other physical resources however, remote they may be.

During and post world war-II period several New Design Approaches have evolved. Some of the important trigger factors are:
  • Shift from National or Individual dominant producer/ supplier Standards to Industry standards ir International consensus standards (such ISO = International Standards Organization).
  • Shift from traditional material + procedure specifications to Performance specifications, mainly for Government purchases.
  • Quality Conscience through adherence to voluntary declarations through ISO 900x, 1400x, etc. It also includes declaration of social and other obligations for all products, services and actions.
  • Provision of Guarantees and warranties of assembled or combined systems by third party professionals or audit and evaluation organizations, rather then by the designers or planners of the projects.
  • The role of media and NGOs in documentation, active reportage and proactive participation beyond the Governmental controls.
A design approach is now not an exclusive process for creating a physical product or a concept, but an all-inclusive strategy to last from conception of a product, its formation and its dissolution including all the after-effects it may generate in future. Every human endeavour is seen to be an entity of our environment. From such thinking many New Design Approaches have emerged.

A Systems Thinking:

One of the first one to emerge as a result of world war II experiences and later the development of Management Sciences is the Systems Thinking (see chapter on Systems Thinking). A systems approach considers an object or human activity as an exclusive or dependent part or sub-system of a larger system. The exclusivity of the of a part is not real, but an intended isolation to study and design the subsystem. The subsystems are accelerated or decelerated in either time or space, or both to mark the likely areas of failure. Systems Thinking being an all inclusive approach, naturally considers operation or working of the creation and its final dissolution.

B Conservation of Resources:

It also in some manner includes Minimalism, miniaturization, rationalization and simplification of everything. This is not new thinking, it has been part of mankind forever, but as a Design Conscience it helps in creating better solutions in a new perspective. This approach was favoured due the development in electronics.

C Bio-Mimicry:

Bio mimicry presupposes that all things in nature are superior and work efficiently. It also accepts that natural things have complex working and many areas are in grey zones, that is not easily comprehensible. But the approach assumes that it is matter of time for grey zones to clear out, and all bio-mimicked things will have greater efficiency and relevance.

Tuesday, December 15, 2009


from Interior Components and Systems : Windows --

Windows are surface elements, but a surface that is penetrable. As a surface element it has a great presence on both exterior and interior sides. A window is fairly a complex entity against the comparatively simplistic wall. Its surface never remains static. Its shutters are shifted to different positions. The contextual conditions like climate, illumination, distance and angle of observation and the purpose of use are continuously varying and in turn reshape the windows’ perceptive form. The external changes are reflected as a reverse -a mirror image in the glazing surface, and the interiors are seen through it. A window, on a single picture frame, simultaneously reveals the changes occurring in the interiors as well as exteriors. The dynamism of the window gets enhanced further by the framing, masking and filtration of the perception.

A window is like a membrane, which may not permit one to go through it, but it allows to stretch out the sensorial faculties. We see, smell, listen and feel the other side through the window. The extension to the other side of the window through the sensorial faculties is always short and casual. The frugality experience stimulates us to go across it, albeit by other means. A person on the outside perceives the safety in the interior, and the one in a bounded space sees the variety of experiences available outside. Doors are dilemmas, either go out or remain in, but a window provides no such options.

Windows have been used for opening out the interior spaces or for bringing in the exteriors. The historical window with opaque glazing of heavily coloured pot glass was extremely colourful but static. As the glass became thinner, lighter in colour the changes in outside levels of illumination began to be noticed on the interior face. This was aided by use of water white Cristallo glass. Interiors seemed much more natural, and attuned to the outside changes in light intensity. Till 19th C windows were vivid elements in an otherwise static exterior or interior surface. From outside the Cristallo was a dull opalescent surface, but clear glass with better casting, polishing and fire finishing began to be iridescent. The glass was recognised as having two distinctly different faces. Iridescent on the outside face due to reflections and a ‘water-white’ flawlessly clear and non glossy surface on the interior face. Corbusier used the opaque iridescence of the exterior surface to juxtapose the exterior masonry surface. But FLW used the deep shadows to eliminate the exterior iridescence and colour staining to break interior clarity. Mies used the exterior mirror like gloss to reflect the changes occurring in the surroundings simultaneously showing up the interior, and thereby reduce the massiveness of the built-form. Window glass is now often used to mix the realities of interior and exterior happenings on a very large joint-less single plane. The mix creates a very vivid object, like a water body reflecting the sky and the floor concurrently. Metalized opaque glass belies the two-way transparency of a see-through element.

Wall to wall glass openings dissolve one or many sides of a volumetric space, reshaping its perceptive size, scale and extent. The spatial illusion becomes more intriguing when such a large reflective glass surface is used.

We are conditioned to expect certain spatial effects in a space. A narrow space visually gets widened by a glass opening, though functionally remains the same. Skylights and clerestories add ‘lightness’ to the space. Lights such as roof holes focus the attention. Openings, depending on their location and nature redefine the space configuration. The stratification of view to the outside offers different scale to the space. Significantly bright areas highlight the details, and so are perceived and registered, more effectively then darker zones. A window becomes an element for changing a space, intentionally and accidentally.

Windows are furrowed gaps into an otherwise solid mass. The depth is highlighted due to the dark interior, and shadows cast by strong and directional light. The shadows as a form creating element was very well exploited by L. Kahn in his Asian buildings. The same effect at a micro scale and in repetition creates a lattice used in Indian Architecture. Windows like bay, bow, Mashrabiya and oriel have been used to enlarge interior spaces and also to correct the interior shape of the space. Zarokhas add to the interior space but have also been used to undulate the exteriors.

Masking has been very commonly used to change the character of the windows. Greek and Roman architecture subdued the openings as a secondary and less visible layer. Romanesque windows once again came to the surface, but openings were framed by the semi circular arch. Coordinating several windows was a concern as the height of the rounded arch was defined by the width of the opening. Gothic architecture solved the problems of geometric composition by pointed arch. It also created a system of subdividing the window opening through mullions, transoms and glazing bars. The window opening was masked by traceried patterns. Window masking became an effective tool to overcome the deficiencies of glass, size, clarity and impurities. The deficiencies made the windows subservient entity of the load-bearing structure. Glass houses, orangeries, etc. allowed windows to define a space without the use of a wall. The need for very large and deep sun lit spaces for bus depots, railway stations, markets, and factories redefined the windows spatial nature.

Framing is a property of all openings. Openings have their sides and mid members within the view cone depending on the point of observation. Palladio masked and framed the exterior face of the opening. The double-hung sash windows did the same on both, exterior and interior face. Framing is now used as an inevitable joint management system, and but often made imperceptible. Stratification (window openings’ position @ low, mid or higher level with reference to height of the user or the task plane) is an important ergonomic parameter that affects the spatial perception.

Transparency is a quality of the glass, and the most important aspect of the surface of the opening. A window opening in the form of a glass curtain wall or shop front, shows up the space in its exterior surface configuration, and also the spatial depths of its interiors. The simultaneity of the exterior and interior spaces adds to the dilemma of the physical reality vs the virtual reality.

Thursday, December 10, 2009


from Interior Design Practice and Office Management - 1

Nature of relationship: Relationship between a professional and a client develops very gradually. Client and professional usually have some degree of rapport, even before a job is discussed. A professional and client both wish to delay any discussion about fees, terms and conditions.

Delays in Formalization of Relationship:

Why a Client may wish to delay.
  • A Client is unsure, if at all professional is needed for the problem, and wether the professional is the right person for the job.
  • A Client as an official (of an organization), may not have the authorization to initiate the retention process for a professional.
  • A Client may not yet have, the permission, land ownership, funds, etc., to initiate the project.
  • A Client may shrewdly wish to negotiate with other professionals, or is trying to collect free ideas, and later carry on the job on own.

Why a Professional may wish to delay:

  • A Professional (at least well established ones), check out their client completely, before agreeing to take-on the project.
  • A Professional (fresher) is always eager to get-on with the job. Yet such professionals delay discussing the fees, terms and conditions because that can disturb the budding, but fragile relationship with the client.
  • A Professional may be waiting for the client to be firmly determined, so that fees and terms can be properly negotiated, and a firm commitment can be sought.

Formal Commitment (consent): The relationship between a client and professional, must develop formally, and as early as possible. For a professional, securing a formal commitment (consent) from a client, for a job, is one of the most difficult of all professional tasks. Consent commits a Client to pay the professional for the services to be rendered. With the consent a Professional becomes obligated to deliver the expected services.

Contracts and MoUs: Ideally two parties must initiate their relationship with a contract, according to the laws of the land. A Contract is a very formal expression of intent between two parties. It is too much to expect a contractual relationship in the initial stage of a job, when the client and the professional hardly know each other, or have yet fully formed a project. Just the same, even without a contract a relationship must be nurtured. Normally this is not very difficult, when both the parties are willing, enthusiastic and have a mutual faith. A memorandum of understandings (MoU) (for further details see chapter: 1.06 Contract), is a tool, frequently used as a step towards a full legal contract.

Cost of Inconstancy: For a professional a job begins with investments in labour, stationary, materials, and intellectual skills. Whereas a client remains worried, if the professional will at all deliver the services, of required quality, and in prescribed time.

When a Professional fails to deliver, (even if any advance sum, that may be fully refunded) a client's time and effort are wasted (both non calculable entities).

When a client refuses to acknowledge, or rejects the professional's contribution, all the labour, stationary and input of intellectual skills (only some of it is calculable) are lost.

An Informal Relationship can turn very vicious at any stage. When disputes arise either of the parties may refuse to even acknowledge the relationship between them. In such a situation the Professional will lose all that was spent in understanding, preliminary working, planning of the project. This could include not only labour, stationary but patent ideas. On the other hand, the Client will never recover the time wasted in searching, identifying and engaging the professional.

Circumstantial Evidences of Job Commitment: It is very natural for Clients and Professional to be extremely careful about things they say and do in the initial stages of a job. For a professional who is often operating without formal consent, securing a proof that his involvement has a tacit approval of the client, is very important. The evidence in such a case is usually circumstantial, and generally not tenable in a court of law, unless corroborated by other circumstantial or real evidences.

These are proofs that establish the time, location, context, contents, pre and post effects of a happening or an event (here the client's commitment). It is not full evidence, because it may be lacking in one or many of these factors. Circumstantial evidences are of many types:

1. Records and minutes of meetings with the client -location, time, context, witnesses, etc.

2. Record of telephone talks with the client,

3. Correspondence to the client,

4. Replies from a client for the queries by the professional,

5. Changes, doodles, and notes, etc. made on drawings and other documents by the client during meetings,

6. Original plans, sketches, writings, data, etc. as supplied by the client,

7. Keys, authorizations to visit the site.

Retainer Fee: The best commitment, next only to a legal contract, is payment of a Retainer fee. A retainer fee, however small, signifies establishment of a relationship, between a client and a professional (a retainer fee should not be confused with retention money: see chapter: 1.13 Tenders ). Ideally the amount of a retainer fee should be large enough to cover the labour, stationary, and the cost of patent (original or exclusive) ideas, required to generate a schematic design (or similar a stage, when first fees become due). The cost of patent or unique idea is collected at first go, because a unique idea or a concept once exposed to an outsider like a client loses its originality, and so the value.

A Retainer Fee is very different from Retention Money -which is part of job execution process, an amount retained from payments to the contractor to accumulate a guarantee amount so that a job will be completed as per the schedule and according to the specifications and other terms and conditions.

Formal relationships (e.g. a contract) usually have built-in Redressing Procedures with compensations, so that, in case of a failure no one is harmed. An Informal Relationship in total absence of corrective remedies can create lots of problems.

Different types of Clients and typical troubles: Until a professional secures formal consent, each class of client poses varied set of problems.

An Individual Client, as a single person may seem to be one of the simplest entities, but unpredictable whims cause unforeseen problems in the job.

A Specific Client, representing a formal or informally constituted group, with appropriate authorization, e.g., president of a club, behaves almost like an individual client, but with responsibility and sincerity.

Group Clients or Committees, being multifaceted are very difficult to handle. A professional must treat such members as if they are one-entity, any individual queries or suggestions must pass through their designated leader. All decisions and actions of such group clients are necessarily formal, so delays are inevitable. Nevertheless, once decisions are made, job commitment is not a major problem.

Wednesday, December 2, 2009


Storage systems constitute the largest and the most important group of amenities, that make bare spaces worthy of inhabitation. We not only store materials but also tools to work upon the materials. Stored things help us to conduct our life at a rational pace. Storage spaces occupy substantial space and often require very acute management.

Materials that we store include not only physical, static and non static things, but biologically live beings (pets) and nonphysical things like ideas, concepts, feelings, experiences and thoughts. Tools include gadgets to process various types of materials and also utilities that facilitate storage of materials.

Some of the things we store are static or less mobile and can be stored without being 'contained', while things like gases, liquids, and biological beings need to be contained. Nonphysical things are stored in terms of their impressions formed on some physical medium.

At domestic level we store,
1. edibles
2. other provisions
3. clothing
4. raw materials
5. tools.
6. Energy resources.

Edibles are stored mainly because their supply is seasonal or time related. Other provisions are stored for the same reason and also because we may consume only a small part of the commercially available or producible lot at any instant. Clothes are stored because their use is a climate and often occasion related. Raw materials need to be stored to amass a usable size of stock and to season or process them. Tools need to be stored because we use them over and over again not only for the same tasks but also different tasks. Energy resources are localized and often seasonal.

At commercial level we store mainly
1. raw materials or consumables,
2. tools
3. energy resources (fuels, kinetic energies etc.)
4. records.

At industrial or production level in addition we store output products and output effluents. At all levels we also need to store means, mediums and containers for storage, measurements, handling and transportation.

Like all human activities the act of storing is very purposive, so provides an impetus to some form of organization. Stored things are far more organized than a very vast left out universe whose order is unknown and is beyond control.

Things are always stored with a clear concept that these will be retrieved in future. A person who stores things may not be able to relish them, unless he has a way to retrieve them at the right occasion, location and format.

Things are generally stored with perception that these are items of wealth and their value will be greater when retrieved. The increment in value may be due to sheer act of containment (location massing), aging (maturing, ripening), organization or orderliness induced through the act of storing, and art or technique of retrieval. Like all wealth, the value of stored things changes with time, and this change may not add to the wealth.

Different societies endow special importance to certain commodities, as prime things worthy of possession and display. It could be utensils, crockery, clothes, handicrafts, bags, containers, Sanduks, Pataras, gadgets, tools, armaments, trophies, prizes, certificates, photographs, paintings, sculptures, antiques, jewel ry, stuffed animals, or a pet.

Storing is also called archiving. In archives generally documents are stored, retrieved and re stored. These documents are preserved and often restored.

Things need to be stored when we wish to condition their state. During storage controlled modifications are allowed or supported. Stored things are affected by not only the environment (atmosphere) but by gravity, magnetic and other energies.

Things are also stored to isolate them, because an encounter with them is likely to be hazardous or inclement to the well being of people or environment. Things are also stored (dumped) when one does not know what to do with the items, or because economically it is not viable to `store' (organize, rationalize) them. Dumped things have no perceptible value, but there is an expectation that dumped things will degenerate eventually, or a better technique or suitable opportunity of dealing with them may become available in future.

There are many different types of storage units. Within our body, Kidneys, Glands, Levers, Stomach, etc. are examples of storage systems. Petroleum tanks, Reservoirs, Septic tanks, Granaries or silos, Settling ponds, Jails, Auditoriums, Concentration camps, Detention camps, Sheep yards, Balloons are also storage units. Atmosphere is a very vast and almost infinite storage unit of energy, dusts particles, radiation, moisture, gases etc. Solid walls and wool garments are capable of storing heat so function as storage unit. Most things store kinetic energy in proportion of their mass. Fusion energy within particle bonds is also a storage system. Ships, Transport containers, Railway wagons, Submarines, Airplanes are transportable storage systems.

Liquids and gases need vessels to contain them. Since vessels have shape defined by the quality of material and construction technique, their size is inherently limited. Things which are comparatively small in size (grains, chips, boulders) may require some type of containment, if stored at angles steeper then their angle of repose or under vibratory conditions that can displace them. Containment is necessary for mass transportation, bulk-handling, high density for packing, and to reduce the amount of air space within the bulk. Containment is often done in modulated units, to improve transportation, stacking and handling. Pallets are modulated units used for lifting goods through fork lifts. Ship containers, gas cylinders, injection vials, medicinal capsules, bullets, grenade, are some of the examples of modulated storage units. Things that are irregularly sized or shaped, can be stored in heaps, provided there is no chance of a spread out. However things that are uniform in size and shape can be stored in stacks. Stacking and heaping systems of storing, both have size limitations. In stacked and stored things, items placed at the bottom are not only difficult to retrieve but there is an overloading burden on them. Such a burden may cause changes in stored things. In stacked or heaped storage, each of the stored elements interacts differently with the environment.

Shirts or clothes, when overburdened, show unwanted creases. Woolen pullovers and suits when overburdened loose their fluffy character, and look flat or dead. Silk Sarees loose their tenderness, while rayon get an indelible permanent press. Cotton mattresses when overburdened for long become stiff. Over heaped cement bags get a false set. Overburdened soils over a period turn into a rock like structure. A person with overburdened memory tends to forget less important thing. Oxygen when heavily burdened (compressed) turns into a liquid and Carbon dioxide into ice like form.

Even for things stored within their burdening limits the process of retrieval will affect the quality of storage. Things stored in a library book shelf pattern can be retrieved, irrespective of order of storage. But heaped or stacked things can be retrieved as `first stored - removable last'. In grain stores like silos all old grains must be removed before fresh ones are stored or alternatively a bottom extraction must be arranged.

Dry edible items like food grains, and condiments are best stored at low humidity and at slightly lower temperature than average. Wet or moist foods and cooked foods need a temperature lower than one that allows bacterial growth. Most bacteria get sterilized at 70 C (as in pasteurization) but once the temperature is lowered there is a likely hood of recurrence of bacterial growth. However, foods stored below 4 C may retard bacterial growth.

Design of a storage unit depends on:
1. Storing procedures: handling, packing
2. Storage format: heaps, stacks, contained
3. Environmental conditions desired
4. Codification, identification
5. Retrieval procedures


BODYING of FIBERS, YARNS AND FABRICS . Post 149  -by Gautam Shah  Fibers, yarns and fabrics have poor bulk or lose the bulk d...