Saturday, May 31, 2014

MODULATION WITH BODY-BASED MEASURE SYSTEMS



Ancient measure systems were based on the human limb sizes and body’s capacities. These were function-related measures such as: foot size and walking, thumb and width, fingers and numbers, palm and holding capacity, head load or horse power and carrying capacity, etc.

In Indian context a weights series had a Maund made of 40 seers and each seer had 16 chhatanks. Monetary series had 1 Rupee consisting of 16 Annas and each anna had value of 4 paise. The Length series had a basic unit of Gaz which was as of 2 Hath, and each Hath was of 8 Girah or 24 Anguls. For example a 5 Gaz cloth was valued 12 rupees, it was difficult to calculate cost of 1 Hath length piece. In later period British unit Foot became common. A Foot was divisible to 12 inches, but the weight unit Pound (avoirdupois) was divisible to 16 ounces.

In a series of measure units, the sub units, though body related, were nearly independent. The interrelationships between sub units were simple, but enforced. Various measures’ series were mutually incomparable and to an extent incompatible.

Across the world there were innumerable measure systems, but the Foot-Pound system became dominant due to extensive colonization by the British Empire.

The Metric System (created in France, post Revolution period) was an abstract system with a Mathematical Order. It had the advantage of Logical Fractions. All measure units were divisible to 10X. But (early) Metric system had too many sub units, many of which were rarely used. For some people the rationale of Metric system was too contrived as its scale did not relate to human body and its parts-whole-parts relationship.

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NEED FOR A COORDINATED MEASURE SYSTEM

'Raw materials or Finished products’ are transient terms for goods. A finished product is a raw material for some other process. Raw materials procured in a linear, square, volumetric, weight or liquid measures get processed into a different ‘measure’ entity. For products transiting from one measure phase to another, a persistent dimensioning system is very advantageous. Consistency of dimensions allows use of standard tools, equipments, plants and technologies. The dimensional consistency, if properly recognized and supported, can rationalize the conversion processes, storage, handling, and waste management.

For example metal ore is mined in volumetric measure, transported by its weight measure, bought for its yield rate value, refined into ingots for weight measures, rolled into metal sections to be used for their strength aspect.

In the ‘Post Industrial Revolution' period, trade and industry all over the world recognized the need for a Universal Dimensioning Discipline. At that time better coordination was also required for conversion and transmission from old measurement systems to the new SI system of measurements. First worldwide understanding emerged in the adoption of SI (Le Système international d'unitésas) as the Universal Measure System.

Organisation internationale de normalisation or International Organization for Standardization would have different acronyms in different languages. Its founders decided to give it a short, all-purpose name. They chose ISO derived from the Greek isos, meaning equal. ISO is a voluntary, democratic and non governmental organization for International Cooperation for Standardization. SI = Systeme Internationale stand for Universal Measure System and it is now accepted by nearly all countries of the world.

SI Recognized Measures: The SI system recognizes three sets of measures in each of the major categories. There is a 1000-factored gradation. The ISO Recognised Measures are:
            Length:           mm     mt        km
            Weight:           mg      kg        T
            Volume           ml       Lt         kl
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ISO MODULAR PREFERENCES
The SI also recognized that, these measures (as above) are either too large or small for practical use. Such a widely spaced (1000 factored) measurement system was not amenable to unit formation for processes like planning, design, production, transportation, fabrication or execution, etc. ISO (International Standards Organization) as a result devised a practical modular system of dimensions known as ISO Modular Preferences. Most National Standards (including Indian Standards) are recommending and enforcing the same for various products and processes.
The ISO Modular Preferences help in both, dividing a whole into logical parts and combining parts into a rational whole. It also accommodates traditional modular systems, such as foot-Inch and earlier versions of the metric systems. Typically, the Foot (12"), the most popular measure of FPS has been accommodated (but not the 1/4 or 1/5 part of the Meter such as 20 or 25 cm or 200 or 250 mm). This was done for wider acceptance and to achieve a gradual changeover.

ISO's Four Preferences for Modular Coordination:
            First Preference         30 cm or 300 mm = 12"
            Second Preference    10 cm or 100 mm = 4"
            Third Preference        5 cm or 50 mm     = 2"
            Fourth Preference     2.5 cm or 25 mm = 1" 

First Preference is favoured by the building materials' industry. Plywoods and other wood products are available in modules of 300 such as 600, 900, 1200, 1800, 2400 etc. Large buildings are designed with 300 as the modular measure. But, for smaller spaces such as Bedrooms, toilets, second preference of 100 is used as a module.

Second Preference is considered to be the most appropriate one for Building components and Planning. Glazed Tiles are available in multiples of 100 mm, with sizes like 100 x 200, 200 x 200, 200 x 300 etc., and also in sizes such as 150 x 150, 150 x 200 etc. as a carry over from the old system. Fabrics have widths of 600, 900, 1000, 1200, 1800 etc. When we order Windows or Doors the width x height are measured in 100 mm increments.

Third and Fourth Preferences are more preferred for objects smaller then 300 sizes. These preferences are not to be used for basic object sizes of more than 300, unless there are strong economic or functional reasons for doing differently.
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IMPLICATIONS OF THE MODULAR COORDINATION OF DIMENSIONS
There are many products where smaller modulation or variations are desirable such as Garments and Shoes. ISO Modular Preferences, do not consider the variations in naturally available materials. Furniture, fittings and fixtures designed with ergonomic profile or serving anthropometric, inconsistencies have no specific accommodation in this system.
ISO is a modular system to form a grid or matrix for macro planning and in that sense takes a superior position. Components and parts are expected to fit in the system. As a result, work-sizes of components and assemblies should be determined by taking account of space for joint and allowance for tolerances.

The ISO modular system is based on SI system (a derivative of the metric system) which originally was rational and contrived, and continues to be so. This type of Modular Coordination of Dimensions, is unnatural and does not exactly relate to human body. Its implications to our senses are extremely limited. It creates an 'order that lacks beauty'. The system does not harmonize the variable tolerances’ requirements, and differences in fitment sizes.

ISO Modular system has very simple and predictable progression-digression, unlike many mathematical orders and systems like Corbusier’s Modulor system.

ISO Modular Preferences, as a universally agreed system of preferred measures, disciplines design, procurement, production, conveyance, handling, storage, distribution, usage, wastage and reuse or recycling of materials. The system has provided a level ground to compare standards of various countries, and evolve world standards (ISO) for various products, services and work or operational procedures. It has made the writing of specification lucid and logical. It simplifies taxation procedures, costing, estimating, and valuation. It also rationalizes deployment of human and energy resources. It has made quality control procedures very objective.

At any cross section of time, there are many creative people, who feel stifled by such an Abstract Dimension Modulating System. But one must also concede that by its universal acceptance (through ISO), a logical dimensioning tool has been made available to a vast majority of people. The Dimensioning Tool defies all localized traditions, cultural variations, anthropometric distinctions, racial biases and geographical peculiarities. The system is unaffected by time or space.


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Sunday, May 25, 2014

AWNINGS



Awnings are sun and snow shading devices over openings like doors, windows and shop fronts. Awnings are also used for forming the entrance spaces. Awnings are made of flexible fabric or sheet material that can be rolled or folded when not required. Hard awnings are made from stiffer sheet materials and have rigid and permanent support system. Awnings with column or bracket supports are canopies. In India hard awnings are also called Chhajjas.


In ancient Egyptian and Syrian civilizations, awnings of woven mats were used for shading the market stalls. Roman poet Lucretius (50BC) describes ‘Linen-awning, stretched, over mighty theatres, gives forth at times, a cracking roar, when much 'tis beaten about, betwixt the poles and crossbeams. A Velarium covered the Colosseum in Rome. It provided both shade and slight protection from rain, although the main use of the Velarium was to create ventilation up-draft, creating circulation and a cool breeze. Velarium effectively shaded one-third of the arena and seating and another third was shaded by the high surrounding walls. From the word Velarium (from velare to cover) it is believed that sailors, with their background in sail-making and rigging were employed to build, maintain and operate the structure.



Ancient texts describe a form of Mandapa (or Mantapa)of temporary nature with four corner supports of wood or bamboo. Chandani (or chandarava) tied by four stretched strings has been described in Jain literature. Mughal miniature paintings show Shamiana or Pandal is a tent shelter for daytime and evening entertainment. Shamiana was used as temporary resting place by royals when on the move. The external fabrics were multicoloured with exquisite designs. The four corners are supported with wooden poles.






Awnings, became very popular during the early 1900's when shop windows or shop fronts became possible with the economic availability of clear large sized glass. However, in Asian bazars awnings have been in use for many centuries, for summer sun shading and rain shading during monsoons.



Awnings are used to extend the buildings. Early awnings had hard wood or bamboo as front cross bar, whereas the support edge was secured by grommets (eyelets) and hooks, or tied by laces to the head rod or support bar. The front end was supported either by inclined spears or metal posts.



A canopy is a fixed awning like structure, supported on all sides. Canopies are used to extend the shaded space near an opening system. Canopies are used to cover the passageways or car drive bays. Canopies are demountable and fold-able but not necessarily retractable or collapsible like an awning. Dutch type or canopy awnings are similar to a perambulator hood, with an umbrella like folding frames.



Structure of an awning is very light. It has a flexible cover and a very light weight support frame that can be retracted or folded. The cover is made with a canvas or similar heavy duty fabric of cotton, polyester or polypropylene fibres. Layered composites of fabrics and polymer sheets, and coated fabrics are also used. Modern awnings are of single colour or with stripes of two or more colours. Awnings often have a festoon, valance or Toran like borders at its front edge. Awnings on shops, restaurants and hotels have their name and logo on the roof face and on the front edge.


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Monday, May 19, 2014

MEASURING UP THE WATER




Water is everywhere on and in the earth. We experience water in three phases, Vapour, Liquid and Ice. The transition from one to another phase occurs well within our perception range. Water in all its three forms is a transparent matter, but we see it due to presence of air and other miscible as well immiscible matter in it.





If all of Earth's water that is in oceans, icecaps and glaciers, lakes, rivers, groundwater, and atmosphere were put into a ball then it would add up to about 1,386 million cubic kilometres (=ball of dia 1385 kilometres). All the water vapour in atmosphere if were to turn into liquid state, it can cover the Earth’s surface by just 25mm depth. The ‘residence’ time of a water molecule in the troposphere is about 9 to 10 days.

Water vapour is continuously generated by two processes, the evaporation of water and the sublimation of ice. The vapour is removed by condensation. Water on evaporation takes away some heat with it, causing evaporative cooling. Conversely when the water vapour condenses onto a surface, a net warming occurs on that surface. Vapour is replenished by evaporation, from seas, lakes, rivers, moist earth, combustion, respiration, volcanic eruptions, the transpiration of plants, biological and geological processes. Humidity varies from 0 grams per cubic metre in dry air to 30 grams per cubic metre. The water content of the atmosphere as a whole is constantly depleted by precipitation.

Water is used for drinking, cooking, bathing, washing, gardening, farming, fishing, transports, cooling, fire-fighting, industrial processes, etc. While using the water, we not only foul it by soils, sediments and chemicals but warm it up.

The transition of water from one phase to another is seen in terms of quantum and the rate at which it occurs. The change is affected by the atmospheric pressure and temperature. Water like any other matter is affected by the gravity which sets in a motion towards the Earth, and in its liquid form by the flows from a higher to lower datum. The rate of flow or water in motion is measured as a rate of passage through an orifice (a measured section) with time as the constant. 


Water as a Liquid is measured by its Volume and sometimes by its Weight. 1 cubic mt of water is 1000 litres of water = 1000 kg

Rainfall: Rainfall is measured in a typical standard rain gauge as prescribed by the Indian Meteorological Department. Typical measurements are taken at 8.30 a.m. in the morning and reported as mm of rain. With 10 mm rainfalls (standard reportage) over a roof area of 100 Sq. mts will yield = 1000 lts of water.

Rain Water measurement Equipment

Flow rate of water provides the measure for water in motion. Cusec = 1 cubic feet of water flow per second / In SI units it is measured as cubic metres of flow per second. If 1 cusec of water is released from a dam for the whole day, 2.45 million litres of water would flow out in 24 hours.

Water temperature is important for use-intake as well as discharge as effluent. The temperature of intake water affects the efficiency of power plants, industrial units and HVAC units. The discharge temperature affects the ability of water to hold oxygen, growth of organisms, and nature of pollutants.

pH level of water reflects the acidity or alkalinity of water. In a range of 0-14, 7 is neutral, less than 7 indicate acidity, and pH of greater than 7 indicates an alkalinity. It also suggests the relative amount of free hydrogen and hydroxyl ions in the water. Water that has more free hydrogen ions is acidic, whereas water that has more free hydroxyl ions is basic.

Specific conductance is a measure to conduct an electrical current. It is highly dependent on the amount of dissolved solids (such as salt) in the water. Pure water, such as distilled water, will have a very low specific conductance, and sea water will have high specific conductance. Rainwater often dissolves airborne gasses and airborne dust while it is in the air, and thus often has higher specific conductance than distilled water. Dissolved solids affect the taste aspect of water such as an unpleasant taste or odour or may cause gastrointestinal problems. High dissolved-solids reduce the flow properties through surface deposition in pipes and plumbing fixtures. It can be removed by reverse osmosis and other water treatments.

Turbidity is the amount of particulate matter that is suspended in water. Material that causes water to be turbid includes: clay, silt, finely divided organic and inorganic matter, soluble coloured organic compounds, plankton and microscopic organisms. Turbidity can be reduced by settlement and filtration devices. The amount of dissolved calcium and magnesium in water determines its "hardness." Water hardness varies throughout the United States. If you live in an area where the water is "soft," then you may never have even heard of water hardness.

Suspended sediment is the amount of soil particles in water. Fast-moving water is likely to pick a lot more soil particles then slow moving or still water.

Dissolved oxygen in water is important for the organisms and creatures in lakes, rivers, and oceans. 

 Water Standards: Indian Standards for drinking water are specified in IS 10500

Executive summary and recommendations of the committee on the pesticides residue in packaged drinking water and packaged natural water.


Mineral Water The Food and Drug Administration defines mineral water as water “containing not less than 250 ppm total dissolved solids that originate from a geologically and physically protected underground water source.” (Water originating from an underground source but containing less than 250 parts per million dissolved minerals can be labelled spring water.)


Perrier is a popular brand of sparkling mineral water bottled in Vergèze, France. Although the water from the spring in Vergèze is naturally carbonated, the Perrier plant collects the water and the carbonic gas from the spring separately, filters the gas, and then recombines the water and gas; this process results in a more consistent product. Perrier is acidic, with a pH around 6, and it contains calcium, chloride, bicarbonate, fluoride, magnesium, nitrate, potassium, sodium, and sulfates.


San Pellegrino, stylized S. Pellegrino, is a popular brand of sparkling mineral water bottled in San Pellegrino Terme, Italy. The water from the spring is not naturally carbonated; the San Pellegrino plant adds “carbonation from natural origin.” San Pellegrino is acidic, with a pH of 5.6, and it contains the same minerals as Perrier, plus lithium, silica, and strontium.

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Sunday, May 11, 2014

ANCIENT DOORS





The Door has been an important element, after the Fire in instilling a sense of security against intruders and wild animals. A door is an elemental entity for controlling environment of the dwelling, in cold climates it keeps the warmth inside, in deserts the sand storms out, and in tropics provides protection against the rainwater. For family the door is a key factor for providing social privacy.

Just as the hearth was the focus of a family, the door denotes a domain, the home. The first doors were plain gaps with additional facility of a cover. A variety of covering materials like, hide, fabrics, woven matings, rubble heaps, sticks, wood logs and planks, metal casts, paper, grass and leaves, and stone slabs were used. These were dumped, heaped, hung or placed strategically. To hold the cover materials, stripes of hides, vines, ropes, animal guts, sticks, etc., were used. The door-covers were often stiffened at the edge to form a shutter. Such door-covers were rolled up or pushed aside. The door-covers as shutters were hung through leather, fabric ropes or vine straps.

In place of a door many types skewed entry positions were also used, such as: cliff faces, entwined passages, narrow or low height(crawling) passageways (like igloos of Eskimos), fall-down (pit houses of China) or climb-up (tree houses), etc.

From the period of ‘non built dwellings’ such as caves, cliffs over hangs, tree shades, etc. to ‘built habitats’ of early Harappan, Egyptian and Mesopotamia periods, the ‘gap or door’ served the purposes of entry-exit, illumination and protection.

Doors-covers were mostly used in dwellings. For public buildings formal and stronger doors were required. The earliest record of a door shutter, is of a painting in an Egyptian tomb where it is shown to be a monolithic panel of wood. In reality such monolithic panels were technologically not feasible, so Vitruvius writes about doors built with stiles (scapi) and rails (impages), and the spaces enclosed were filled with panels (tympana).

Harappa’s main streets were straight walled with no openings on it. Entries to the dwellings or rather door-like openings were placed in the small side-lanes, passages or court yards. Other rooms of the house had entry gaps from such passages and court yards. The ‘doorway’ or gaps were covered or ‘curtained’ with hides, fabrics and woven mats for privacy. The word ‘Shitomi’ (Japanese) for the door literally means ‘a small woven mat’, recalling the hanging curtain forms of doors in ancient buildings.

The concept of a door as a controlled barrier with a shutter is only 7000 to 8000 years old. Doors of rigid and permanent materials first appeared with monumental architecture or public buildings. Doors for important chambers were made of wood or stone. All ancient doors of wood or stone were hung by pivots inserted into lintels and floor pieces of hard stones such as basalt, dolerites or granite. In later periods the wood pivots were sheathed in cast bronze.



Early doors had no frames, as these were hung by pivots inserted into the building element. When pivots began to be replaced by hinges, as the efficient hardware, the door frames became a necessity for fixing the hinge ends. The door now had a doorframe a distinctive element from the masonry surrounds of pivot doors. The door shutters were rarely monolithic as such large sized material were rare. These were composed of stiles and insert panels. The framed door, and its panelled shutter, both together made it easy to repair and replace system. In 20th C once again better masonry or wall making techniques have reduced the need for a door frame, by concealing it or integrating the door frame.
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Thursday, May 8, 2014

LIST of BLOGS

LIST of BLOGS @ INTERIOR DESIGN ASSIST

 @ http://interiordesignassist.wordpress.com/


List of BLOGS till today May 8 2014 


1 INTERIOR SPACES as Settings for Tasks March 14 2014
2 INTERIOR DESIGN and the Locus March 15 2014
3 INTERIOR SPACES and INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS March 16 2014
4 EXTERIOR and INTERIOR SPACES March 17 2014
5 SPACE PLANNING -Developments March 18 2014
6 LONELINESS and Space Design March 19 2014
7 THE REALM OF BUILDINGS March 20 2014
8 WINDOW LOCATION and NATURAL LIGHTING March 21 2014
9 OPENINGS’ TREATMENT SYSTEMS : Design Considerations March 22 2014
10 SPACE PLANNING by Visual and Non-visual means March 23 2014
11 DECADENCE in BUILDINGS March 24 2014
12 QUALITY OF INDOOR AIR March 26 2014
13 HISTORICAL WALL FINISHES March 27 2014
14 PROCESS OF STANDARDIZATION March 28 2014
15 GRILLS and TRELLIS March 29 2014
16 EXPLOITING HUMAN RESOURCES March 30 2014

17 PROJECT REPORT or PROJECT PROFILE REPORT April 1 2014
18 SHEER FABRICS and CURTAINS April 2 2014
19 FORMING SURFACE FINISHES April 3 2014
20 ANTI-LIGATURE April 4 2014
21 OCULUS -Circular windows April 5 2014
22 STONES for buildings April 6 2014
23 INTERNAL SHADING DEVICES April 7 2014
24 TREATMENTS OVER OPENINGS April 8 2014
25 MULLION April 9 2014
26 THIRD DIMENSION OF OPENINGS April 10 2014
27 DEMOUNTABLE PARTITIONS April 11 2014
28 PERIPHERAL ZONES in INTERIOR SPACES April 12 2014
29 PURPOSES SPECIFICATIONS SERVE April 13 2014
30 STANDARDS Levels of Relevance April 14 2014
31 TYPES OF STANDARDS April 15 2014
32 Emergence of National and International Standards April 16 2014
33 FORMS OF STANDARDS April 17 2014
34 QUILTING April 18 2014
35 MIKVEH April 19 2014
36 Temperature related Comfort parameters for Interior Design April 20 2014
37 OPEN ENDED SYSTEMS vs CLOSED ENDED SYSTEMS April 21 2014
38 DOOR CASINGS April 22 2014
39 HUMAN BODY TEMPERATURE MECHANISMS April 23 2014
40 SEATING ARRANGEMENTS and INTERACTIONS April 24 2014
41 VARNISH April 25 2014
42 SHELLAC COATINGS and FRENCH POLISHES April 26 2014
43 LACQUERS or NC LACQUERS April 27 2014
44 WOOD SURFACE PREPARATIONS for CLEAR COATINGS April 28 2014
45 WRITING and SPECIFYING MEASURES on DRAWINGS April 29 2014
46 CATEGORIES of BUILDING SYSTEMS April 30 2014

47 PARTS and COMPONENTS MAY 1 2014
48 Sloped Roofs MAY 2 2014
49 PERCEPTION of SOUND and SPACES MAY 3 2014
50 SOUND MAY 4 2014
51 SOUND, SPACE and PERCEPTION MAY 5 2014
52 SPACE and SOUND REVERBERATION MAY 6 2014
53 ACOUSTICS in SMALL SPACES MAY 7 2014
54 PROCESS of PERCEPTION part-I  MAY 8 2014

Monday, May 5, 2014

SYSTEM OF MODULATION and PROPORTIONS


   MODULATION and PROPORTIONS



It has been seen that certain Compositional Values or Patterns persist even through the scaling such as the reductions or enlargements. These compositional values, whatever scales or measures they may relate, are of pure numbers.


Compositions of pure numbers have a degree of order, called the System of Proportions. When the order occurs as a pervasive system, whole to the parts or parts to the whole, a System of Modulation occurs.

A System of Modulation inherently will have some kind of System of Proportion, but a System of Proportion may not have any apparent System of Modulation. A System of Modulation is an intellectual contribution to the composition, whereas most of the Proportion Systems defy such definition, and so seem intuitive.

According to the arithmetical definition, a Proportion is the equality of Ratios. A Proportionate Ratio manifests with numbers that have some contextual relationship, such as adjacent numbers in sequence, in a matrix or in multi lateral composition (between length, width and height). A proportion is an ideal relationship between two numbers, defined as the division of one number by the other.


The Golden Section in Architectural Theory



Golden Section and other Systems of Proportions: Historically many Systems of Proportions and Systems of Modulation have been attempted.

Golden Section, is an order of a Geometric Proportion based on a specific ratio in which the Whole relates to the Larger Part, just as the Larger Part relates to the Smaller Part. For example a line AC (whole) is divided into two unequal parts, AB (larger part) and BC (smaller part). The ratio of AC / AB (whole / larger part) is same as the ratio of AB / BC (lager part / smaller part). Mathematical this reads as AC/AB = AB/BC or inversely as AB/AC = BC/AB.

This ratio is known as the Divine Proportion. The Golden Rectangle, whose length and width are the segments of a line divided according to the Golden Section, occupies an important position in paintings, sculpture, and architecture, because its proportions have long been considered the most attractive to the eye.

Another Proportioning System is the Ratio of √2 : 1 = 1.4142 : 1 The simplicity of this derivation (a square root of 2 is the diagonal, in a square of side length 1) is paralleled by the ease of maintaining the proportion through division or multiplication of the proportioned rectangles.


Measurements as Pure Numbers and Numeric Orders: Measurements without any context (feet, inches, metres, or height, width, etc.) are Pure Numbers. Creative persons, over the ages have tried, and are still trying to discover a perfect order for composition of pure numbers.

Many complex Numeric Orders have been devised and tried, but none has yet proved to be a universal system. The most common are the various Arithmetic Orders, in which through a specific formula (equation) the numbers are sequenced to form a Logical Series. The Fibonacci Series is an arithmetic order (1,2,3,5,8,13,21,34,55...) That has been shown to have an Order of Proportion between adjoining two numbers (3/5, 5/8, 8/13, 13/21, 21/34...).

There is an on going search for an Order or Modulation System that coordinates various limb sizes (anthropometric measures), of not only an average or a perfect human being, but people of different races (different stature).


Corbusier's Modulor System (https://www.flickr.com/photos/eager/5031911411)
Le Corbusier has attempted to develop a 'Modulor System' that coordinates human limb sizes. He also believed that such a system on its own generates a System of Proportions. Possibly in his own work he did achieve a System of Proportion, but looking back in a historical perspective it was not fully accepted by other designers.

The 'Modulor System' was essentially a linear system. Human perception of solid - 3D forms are conditioned by the perspective or converging view. The perspective view depends on the distance and angle of vision of the object. From every point in space one gets a different perspective, and so our perceptions of objects' measures are ever changing.

No definite system that truly works for such a dynamic situation has yet been devised. A Modular Measure System based on the Ergonomics (usage through human limbs), may not work, for the visual and other sensorial (aesthetic) needs.
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BODYING of FIBERS, YARNS AND FABRICS

BODYING of FIBERS, YARNS AND FABRICS . Post 149  -by Gautam Shah  Fibers, yarns and fabrics have poor bulk or lose the bulk d...