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Showing posts from September, 2013

Assessment of Projects

Project assessment requires some degree of quantity determination in numbers, lengths, area, volume, weight, etc. Secondary assessment occurs through comparisons (evaluation) using different factors (‘yardsticks’ or datums). There are two classes of secondary assessments, monetary and non-monetary.

Monetary assessments are in terms of the COST (contribution for purchase or acquisition), or the (monetary) VALUE (probable increase or decrease to the cost, or attached sentiments) of an item, or its unitized section.Non-monetary assessments are based on factors like: energy efficiency, loads, stability, consumables, upkeep, time schedules, productivity, risks probability, man power requirements, length, area or volume spreads, growth rates, change rates, ecological concerns, social relevance, legal implications, etc.
Projects are assessed frequently through their period of conception, design, execution and later during operations. In each event, the perceptions, level of accuracy, means …


Building as a System  > from series Interior Components and Systems

Building as a System /Building : A system for inhabitation / Categories of Building Systems /How Building Systems emerge /Building User and the Environment


A building is a very complex entity made up of many parts, components and systems. Some Parts of the building come together to form a Component. Parts and Components function in unison to form a System. A system has twofold identity: a unique personality of what it does, and a coherent character of how it carries out its functions. The ‘first identity makes a system substantially self-sufficient’, but the ‘second identity makes it a participant of a larger system’.

A building is a Man-made system compared to many Natural systems (such as weather, ecological, solar etc.). It is a Physical system unlike many ‘Conceptual’ or Nonphysical systems (such as information, taxation etc.).

Buildings are physical  entities composed of many element…

COATINGS -Iron age

COATINGS    -Iron age from series Surface Finishes > Coatings > Iron age

Iron Age is a period that is very broadly defined, in time scale, intensity and geographical extent. But it represents a complete command over the fire, related handling processes and beginning of chemical analysis. In the early phase, it gave a birth to remote handling tools and techniques, like the arrows, spears and other projectiles used for hunting. Fuels, structures for hearths and kilns and vessels were devised to work with fire. These were paralleled with refinement of materials processing technology. A whole range of chemistry was developed through baking of ceramics, forming glass beads and food processing. Reduction of metal from ores and the secondary processes like casting, shaping, forging, alloying, smelting, calcining, etc. provided many other forms of materials. Richly hued and intensely toned colourants or pigments formed part of these discoveries.

A distinction is usually made between a pi…

PRIMITIVE COATINGS Surfaces, Materials and Techniques

PRIMITIVE COATINGS    Surfaces, Materials and Techniques    article - II in series Coatings

Coatings have been used for coating and decorating many objects and surfaces for the past 60000 years. ‘Coatings’ were used to add colour, add a protective layer, ‘plaster’ a surface, impart a pattern or an identity signage. The coatings materials were mostly of natural origin such as available off the ground, or from animals and plants. The act of coating was intentional, done with a sure purpose. But it had a wondrous effect that gave a new purpose to the artefact. Coatings’ techniques used for painting became a magic media to express what spoken language could not do.

Objects and surfaces to be coated:

A primitive person, for the supposedly unencumbered life, had many objects that could receive coatings. These objects had natural or formed shapes and surfaces. The surfaces had different porosities, textures, base-colours and patterns (grains, patches, stains, etc.). The objects were hides,…



Coatings are thin surfacings. A coating is mainly created through a change in the physical state of a material (change of phase). At application-stage a coating material is in various state or phases such as liquid, solid or vapour, or a combination thereof like: suspension, solution, dispersion, emulsion, thermoplastic compound, thixotropic compound, etc. Coatings, however, once applied ultimately settle down to a heavier phase, usually (but not necessarily) a solid phase.

At an application stage a lower phase helps in many ways:

1.     Easy, uniform and thin level of application.
2.    Better dispersion of costly or rare constituents.
3.     Easy and thorough mixing of constituents such as film forming materials and other additives.
4.     Less energy is required for application.
5.     A controlled rate of deposition through phase conversion.

Coatings are generally capable of forming a film on the relevant surface. However to form a film through coating, the su…