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Showing posts from June, 2014

MICRO VENTILATION

Micro ventilation is a very important passive means of adjusting heat and moisture for Hot-arid and Hot-humid climates. It is one of the easiest and consistent ways of managing comfort in enclosed and semi-open spaces. It relies mainly on external or macro conditions of the terrain or region, and it is efficiently managed by appropriate interior design. Micro ventilation systems of vernacular design are time-tested solutions that have come down from one generation to another.
Micro ventilation ensures that AIR enters or leaves an enclosed space through cracks, crevices, gaps or apertures in buildings’ structure and its components. Entry and exit of air chiefly occur due to differential pressures along a point to point paths of movement. The differential pressures mark the windward and wind-off sides. The working pressure is regulated by both the size and shape of the layout scheme of the buildings and individual components of the building. The temperature of surfaces and surroundings n…

CLAY or MUD STRUCTURES - part - 3

FOUR: WALLS WITH FIRED CLAY SOLID BLOCKS


Mud wall systems have one major drawback, their susceptibility to water. Other issues are their low load bearing capacity and heavy dead weight due to the substantial thickness. Mud wall systems are labour intensive and require frequent upkeep. . Mud blocks when fired in kiln at various temperatures and duration turn into ceramic product -the bricks.  . Bricks are the prime building blocks for constructing walls, roofs, lintels, floors and pavements. Bricks or similar blocks used in nearly every geographic region of the world. The materials used for making such blocks include clay, china clays , pozzolanic ash, cement and lime. Some of these materials are mined from nature or reprocessed. Brick are solids or hollowed masses. Bricks are cast in form-work or extruded. Bricks have many different sizes and shapes. Basically bricks have two faces, in wall construction the larger surface is placed parallel to the gravity. Exception to these rule incl…

CLAY or MUD STRUCTURES Part - 2

THREE: JOINTS OF MUD, DAUBING AND PLASTERS


In locations where building stones or wood and grass products (bamboo, Cain, long straws) are available, Mud has been used as joint filler, daubing, layering or plastering material. In Himalayan range stone boulders have been used for creating walls. These were internally and superficially packed with mud or plastered. (Though the boulder walls, in spite of packing and joint filling remain unstable in earthquakes -are now banned.) In stone masonry the joint filling or external packing (lining) with mud, stops cold winds, rain-water penetration and insects proliferation.


Clay daubing is mud plaster over woven mats of bamboo, grasses etc. fixed over frames. Similarly wood, metal and other lattices are used to hold a layer of mud. This method creates, comparatively a thinner, and so a lighter wall structure. The framing structure provides the load-bearing capacity and lateral stability. Often inner partitions of Mud wall houses are made by this m…

CLAY or MUD STRUCTURES Part - 1

CLAY or MUD STRUCTURES Part - 1
Clay or Mud structures have been in use for the past 70000 or more years. Clays have been mined or collected from surfaces for the specific purposes such as for pottery, agriculture, construction of dwellings and public utilities. For each of these purposes suitable clays were identified, quality equalized and upgraded by selection, elimination, sieving and addition of other materials.
The first few structural properties of clay that were learnt included its behaviour in presence and absence of water, its angle of repose(steepest angle to which a soil material can be piled without slumping), and the qualitative differences among clays and the suitability for intended purposes.
For agriculture, fertility of clay, role of aeration and moisture content were known. For pottery and buildings, how the plasticity was governed by quality of clay, amount of water, and the additives. Plasticity affected the forming processes like shaping, moulding and bonding. Pl…

ARCHITECTURE of WINDOWS

. Windows have originated as very distinctive opening system from Doors. The door for many years served the functions of a window. The specific form and unique functions of the windows were formed over several centuries. The doors, unlike windows had to be ‘grounded’, and that was the most remarkable difference between the two.
In Egyptian temples the openings were tall gaps, shuttered at the bottom for little more then the human eyesight level. Rest of the upper opening was a window for the Sun God Ra to enter. The window required no shutter for that climate. For the colder climates, all windows like openings had to have option of shutting out. Solid wood planks or rugs curtains covered the window. It was either closed-dark or open to winds and cold. 
Windows were placed in the door and beside the door to deal with the unknown visitors. Such windows were subjugated by the identical and often the superior functionality of the door. A window had its own distinctive functional identity…