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Showing posts from January, 2014


The wall paintings (upper palaeolithic era) began some 40000 to 60000 BC, as a medium of expression -a ‘story’ telling exploit. It was not a decorative art for a place. The paintings were in deep caves as well as open sites. Bhimbetka, India, site shows human occupation for more than 100,000 years, but earliest paintings on the cave walls here date back just 30,000 years ago.
Upper Palaeolithic period began roughly around 40,000/60000 years ago and lasted through the Pleistocene ice age, which is believed to have occurred near 8,000 B.C. This period was marked by the rise of Homo sapiens and their ever-developing ability to create tools and weapons.
The cave sites were difficult to access but were perhaps special and visited by several generations.  The caves were deep and dark that artists worked with lamps and torch lights. The paintings were made on walls, ceilings and even floors. Many of the locations and surfaces were acutely irregular. Artists had to work in squatting lying po…


A partition wall is generally a non load-bearing element except in an emergency where it may temporarily carry a load. A partition wall could be an internal unit designed to divide spaces to form separate rooms, circulation spaces and service ducts. External partition walls enclose a space, provide a barricade, be a decorative surface appendage, or provide massive effect to linear elements like columns or slab edges. Partition walls do many other things besides partitioning so become integrated systems. Partition systems are full height touching both floor and ceiling or part height, off either the floor or ceiling. Free from floor partitions are used in wet or rough areas and where floor cleaning is frequent (such as toilets, dressing booths, shower stalls). Open office partitions, if free from the floor allow low level circulation of air. Upper level free partitions are used for ventilation and visual openness at ceiling level. Partition systems are both, fixed or relocatable. Parti…

WALLS and Buildings

A wall is a barrier system, used for dividing or enclosing a space, usually in a position that is perpendicular to the gravity, but not necessarily. A wall can also be defined as a planner structure, generally vertical, with a proportionately narrow thickness in comparison to its height and length. A wall is required to resist besides its own weight -the self load, the dead load of super structures, andlive loadsof people and their objects. In addition to these loads a wall is required to transmit lateral forces from arches, vaults, and side pressures like wind, vibrations and earthquakes. Loads are transmitted along its section and often across the section of the wall. However, beyond the gravitational zone, in outer space structures, super imposed loads on the ‘wall’ are converted into stresses and ultimately in some form of kinetic energy, so an equilibrium must to be maintained. Loads on walls primarily occur as super imposed loads, and as reactions from the supporting elements.…


#Openings #Gates #Gateways #Doors #Windows #Barriers

Barriers are continuous or overlapping entities. Barriers can only be experienced through the cuts, cleavages or gaps within them. Designed openings in barriers include doors, windows, gates and gateways. These openings’ systems occur within barriers systems such as walls, fencings, fort walls, enclosures, partitions, and dividers.

An opening system to be effective must occur within a barrier. A strong barrier system creates an effective opening system. Opening systems are subordinated or minor systems of the barriers. Opening systems are ineffective in barriers that are transparent, broken or  discontinuous. A room with a lattice wall all around or a glass cabin has no need for a window. An open pavilion has no need for any door. However, often stand-alone opening systems do occur without the inevitable mothering barrier. Japanese Gate Torii is placed alone, anywhere in 'wilderness', in the middle of water expanse.

The San…


In Interior Design organizations, many types of documents are created. These documents largely consist of Views (Plans, Sections, etc.), and also  include Write-ups (about things that cannot be adequately represented through views, or for people who are not trained to interpret drawings).

The Interior Design Documents are essentially of Following types:

    1    Personal
    2    In-house
    3    For client’s
    4    For consultants’
    5    For permissions / approvals by authorities
    6    For presentation / publications
    7    For job award or execution

1    PERSONAL DOCUMENTS are created by the designer or scheme formulator. These are concept sketches drawn impressionistically and often like doodles or bubble diagrams. These are for designer's personal reference or reminder. As these documents are rarely meant for anyone else, are thin in content and just indicative. Sketch or preliminary drawings are too small in size, not to exact scale, lacking in details, and do not carry …


How an individual establishes a Role Locus is one of the most important aspect of sociological responses. Possession and occupation of a space immediately translates as to the degree of social reactivity.

A person marks, possesses and occupies a place for inhabitation, and it becomes a meaningful space. 

For the person, the geographical spread becomes a Role Locus for behaviour. The place identity leads to a place attachment, because here a person can satisfy biological, social, psychological and cultural needs. The experiences of inhabitation at a place create a legacy of personal values, attitudes, feelings and beliefs. As a person interacts with various places and spaces, one is able to evaluate which properties in different environmental conditions fulfil various needs. A place and space begin to merge as a complete form or setting to sustain the behaviour.

Harold Proshansky, etc. of City University of New York have explored the concept of place identity as a ‘substructure of the…